Citations are used to show your reader(s) where the information in your paper was originally published. Citations are important because they show your reader(s):

  • when the information was published
  • who the author of the information is
  • which journal or group published the information
  • which version the information was published in (usually just for literature).

All of this information about the information you cite in your papers is important because it not only keeps you from plagiarizing other people’s ideas, but it also helps you prove to your reader(s) that you know your topic. Many of us might see information on television, the radio, the internet, or social media that is not cited. Usually, we then ask ourselves, “how does this person know this?” or “where did he or she get his/her information?” By using citations, our readers are more likely to trust us and what we write.

Which Citation Styles?

Different scholarly and professional organizations have established their own ways of citing information. The most common citation styles that you will encounter in university/college were developed by the APA (The American Psychological Association) and the MLA (Modern Language Association). Other citation styles include Chicago (published by the University of Chicago), Harvard style (created by Harvard University), CSE (Council of Science Editors), and IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers).

Different journals of The Grassroots Institute adopt different citation and referencing style. For example, GJNR adopts Harvard Style. Please refer relevant information about citation & referencing style of our individual journals.

Why to Use a Citation Style?

It is important to use the citation style that is used in the field you are writing for. For example, many social scientists use the APA citation style for their papers. APA in-text citations include years, but years are not included in other citation styles’ in-text citations. For social scientists, the year that research was conducted is important since research could be conducted various times over multiple years; therefore, if the reader does not know which year the research came from, she or he might not fully understand the paper. Each citation style has details that are important for that field, so be sure to use the citation style that your instructor suggests.

Scribbr has elaborately explained all types of citation styles. Please read their information.

This table below is important list of most common citation styles. You can click the link of particular style to read more about it.
Citation style Disciplines Type of citation
MLA Humanities Parenthetical (author-page number)
APA Psychology, education, social sciences Parenthetical (author-date)
Chicago A History, humanities Notes
Chicago B Sciences, social sciences, humanities Parenthetical (author-date)
Turabian Humanities, social sciences, sciences Notes or author-date
Harvard Economics Parenthetical (author-date)
Vancouver Medicine Numeric
OSCOLA Law Notes
IEEE Engineering, IT Numeric
AMA Medicine Numeric
ACS Chemistry Numeric, Author-page number or Notes
NLM Medicine Numeric
AAA Anthropology, social studies Numeric
APSA Political science Parenthetical (author-date)
Other Links for Prominent Citation Styles

There are number of free and paid software available to check the grammar manually or online. Several of such software are listed as under:


Before submitting your manuscripts for publishing, you should check your own text. There are several paid and free software to check your text.


Students, academics, authors, and researchers do their fair share of online research. With so many different databases, online journals, and websites, it can get pretty overwhelming to manage your references and keep them all organized—especially if you're doing it manually. But did you know that there are programs that can actually manage and keep track of your references for you? There are many different reference management software programs that can make the process of managing your references almost effortless.

Some software are:

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